Managing SPS measures to reduce food-related health risks poses clear and specific challenges for developing countries, which are hampered by less access to the scientific and technical knowledge and information needed to meet these new requirements. Their difficulties do not appear to affect the international legislative process, as most developing countries do not have the financial facilities to participate in the activities of international organizations. The conditions for the production and marketing of food are highly fragmented and depend on a large number of small producers. Therefore, they are incompatible with SPS requirements such as traceability. Preliminary estimates show significant negative economic consequences of stricter trade barriers, which have resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in commodity trade. Henson et al. indicated that the number of technical notifications to developing countries to the WTO and its predecessor, GATT, doubled between 1990 and 1998. Anti-dumping legislation Laws protecting domestic importers that can prove that products imported abroad are “dumped” in the domestic market. protect domestic import competitors, which can demonstrate that products imported abroad are “dumped” in the domestic market. Since dumping is often considered an unfair business practice, anti-dumping law is referred to as an unfair trade law. Dumping is defined in different ways.
Dumping usually means selling a product at an unfair or less reasonable price. In particular, dumping is defined as (1) sales in a foreign market at a price below the domestic market, (2) sales in a foreign market at a price below the average cost of production, or (3) where there are no domestic sales, sales in a foreign market at a price below the price calculated in another foreign market. The percentage to be increased to obtain a fair or reasonable price is considered a margin of dumping. For example, if a company sells its product at $12 in its home market but sells it for $10 in a foreign market, the dumping margin is 20%, since a price increase of $20 is increased to $12. In 1947, the United Nations negotiated the general agreement on tariffs and trade. This contract has created a body to verify and resolve trade disputes between its members. Members continue to update the underlying contract through a series of “rounds” of negotiations.