These three objectives provide state and non-governmental actors with a unique and clear long-term travel direction, as there is a link between economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and the effects of climate change. According to the latest available scientific data, achieving the long-term temperature target would require global greenhouse gas emissions to peak by 2020 and then reduced to zero by the end of the century. To limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, this reduction to zero must be achieved by 2050. National communication reports often cover several hundred pages and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its weaknesses and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. The International Civil Aviation Organization (Icao) and the International Maritime Organization have negotiated climate agreements, but both are not aligned with a global warming limit of 1.5 degrees Celsius or 2 degrees Celsius. 177 Id. Art.
21. The penultimate version of the text of the negotiations also contained a square language which stipulates that the agreement would not enter into force until 2020, but that language has been somewhat mysteriously removed from the final text, increasing the possibility of a rapid entry into force before many countries have ratified it. See THE UNFCCC Legal Aff. Programs, Information Note: Force into the Paris Agreement: Legal Requirements and Implications (Apr. 6, 2016). While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.
 The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  Among other things, countries need to report their greenhouse gas inventories and progress towards their targets, so that external experts can assess their success. Countries should also review their commitments by 2020 and present new targets every five years to further reduce emissions. They must participate in a “comprehensive state of affairs” to measure collective efforts in order to achieve the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. In the meantime, developed countries must also assess the financial assistance they will provide to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. Like most industrialized countries, the UK is struggling to reduce its emissions. But the nation deserves special mention as the only developed economy in the world to have created a body to monitor how the country fulfills its obligations under the Paris Agreement and how the country could do it better.