Consider this example of anchor bias by Guhan Subramanian of Harvard Business School and a faculty member at Harvard Law School. While Subramanian was doing a negotiation simulation in one of his classes, he noticed that a student was spent a lot of time explaining why $10.69 an hour would be an impossible rate of pay that the student`s counterpart could offer. That. Take, for example, the sale of a used car. The buyer hopes to buy a vehicle at a price between $2,500 and $3,000. The seller is ready to sell for a price between $2,750 and $3,250. In this scenario, there is a positive trading area between $2,750 and $3,000, where the conditions of both the buyer and seller can be met. Your ZOPA analysis should start by considering your best alternative to a negotiated deal or BATNA, write Roger Fisher, William Ury and Bruce Patton in their founding negotiating text Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Your BATNA is the course of action you would take if you did not reach an agreement in the ongoing negotiations. For example, if you decide to accept no less than $70,000 a year for a particular job offer, if you can`t negotiate that salary, your BATNA will be taking another job, looking harder for other opportunities, or going back to school.
The “deal trap” describes the tendency to accept a deal that is inferior to your BATNA or the best alternative to a negotiated deal. In other words, sometimes we come to an agreement, even if we have a much better agreement elsewhere. A negative trading area can be overcome by “widening the pie”. In inclusive negotiations on a variety of issues and interests, parties who combine their interests to create value come to a much more rewarding agreement. Behind each position, there are usually more common interests than contradictory.  The seller wants to get the maximum possible amount for their offer, but can usually also set a limit on the minimum amount they accept. The smallest amount they are willing to accept is called the seller`s “booking price.” This is the amount in which they draw the line, also known as the “start” of the transaction point. In fact, rigorously analyzing your best alternative to a negotiated agreement or BATNA, evaluating the area of a possible agreement, and looking at all the issues at stake are three complementary steps you can take to achieve the best results.
A ZOPA exists when there is an overlap between the booking price of each part (final result). A negative trading area is when there is no overlap. With a negative negotiating zone, both sides can (and should) leave. Finding the area for a possible agreement in negotiations can be difficult, especially when it comes to friends and family members. We all know people who have “alligator arms.” When the restaurant check arrives, they fail to reach their wallet, or they argue that they had the little tomato juice and you the big one. . Read more The possible area of agreement (ZOPA) is the area of a negotiation in which two or more parties can find common ground. Here, the negotiating parties can work towards a common goal and reach a possible agreement that incorporates at least some of the other`s ideas. .